Print Send Add Share. Author, Primary Copyright Date: Permission granted to University of Florida to digitize and display this item for non-profit research and educational purposes. Any reuse of this item in excess of fair use or other copyright exemptions requires permission of the copyright holder. I thank my daughter for giving me the inspiration to be a better person.
I thank my parents for providing me with the morals, commitment, and attitude for excellence that has led me to achieve my childhood dreams. I thank my two sisters for making me a proud older brother. I also thank everyone who offered me assistance, guidance, and their friendship both inside and outside the classroom throughout my years at the University of Florida.
Most of all, I would like to thank God, for He has given me all who I have mentioned above, and all the other gifts that I am so blessed to have in my life. Proj ect Scope Enhancements to the DNR Model Beach Profiles Development of Wave Conditions. Rivers, Creeks, and Lagoons Even-odd analysis Historic shoreline change Historic Volume Changes Shoreline Position Overtopping Propagation Profie Definitions Profie Changes Along-shore Boundary Conditions Case 1: One Seawall, No NourishmentsRestoring and conserving coastal resilience faces increasing challenges under current climate change predictions.
Oyster restoration, in particular, faces threats from alterations in precipitation, warming water temperatures, and urbanization of coastlines that dramatically change salinity patterns, foster the proliferation and spread disease, and disrupt habitat connectivity, respectively.
New York City NYC coastal waters, once home to a booming oyster fishery for eastern oysters Crassostrea virginicaare now nearly devoid of live oyster reefs. Oyster restoration in urban estuaries is motivated by the synergistic ecosystem benefits this native keystone species can deliver. This study assessed fitness-related performance across the HRE salinity gradient to evaluate habitat suitability on an estuarine scale.
Oysters were hatchery-produced from wild, moderate-salinity broodstock, then outplanted for measurement of growth, survival, reproduction and disease prevalence over two years. Survival was generally higher in the lower salinity river sites and in the higher salinity Jamaica Bay sites relative to mesohaline NYC harbor sites. Growth rate was highest in Jamaica Bay and had high variation among other sites.
Surprisingly, the highest proportion of individuals with sex-differentiated gametes and the highest average gonad maturation index was found at a low salinity site. Consistent with the advanced gametogenesis measured in experimental animals at low salinity, annual wild recruitment was documented near the low salinity remnant population in each of five monitored years.
These results suggest that the remnant HRE oyster population is a robust, self-sustaining population that can be leveraged to support restoration of subpopulations in other parts of the estuary, but further research is required to determine if the mesohaline and near-ocean reaches of the HRE can support the full oyster life cycle.
Looking for help with HO scale harbor breakwater
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The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.
Estuarine ecosystems are transition zones that provide essential habitat to hundreds of species, yet rank among the most heavily human-impacted ecosystems because of concentrated urbanization and increased impervious surface [ 1 ]. It is likely that humans preferentially colonized the biotically richest estuaries where the natural capital helped support the prosperity and growth of modern coastal cities. There was arguably more at stake, i. Persuasive arguments for doing so have been made on the basis of economics, human well-being, biodiversity, and coupled human-ecological resilience [ 23 ].
Nonetheless, contemplating this objective is daunting given the seemingly faint ecological heart-beat of these systems, the extensive hardening of shorelines, and the possibly high costs compared with less degraded estuaries. For these reasons, and because Hurricane Sandy recently highlighted critical vulnerabilities, it is an urban estuary restoration case study of substantial importance and attracting great interest.
Interest in the restoration of ecosystem services has been increasing as indicators of water quality have slowly improved since the passage of the Clean Water Act [ 56 ]. One of eleven ecosystem services prioritized for targeted restoration in the HRE is a sustainable oyster population [ 78 ] because this keystone species has been shown to clarify the water through filter feeding, cycle nutrients from the water column to the benthos, provide habitat for hundreds of other species by building continually accreting reefs, and their reefs can help attenuate storm surge [ 29 — 12 ].
NYC waters have been closed to oyster harvest for more than a century, initially precipitated by a typhus outbreak and maintained to both minimize public health risks and protect legal oyster commerce [ 14 ].
The harvest closures are not expected to change, and possibly can simplify restoration of oyster ecosystem services relative to locations where a fishery generates competing objectives [ 15 ]. The importance of metapopulations, semi-isolated populations exchanging migrants among different habitat patches, has long been stressed in ecosystem restoration [ 16 ]. Metapopulation connectivity as a restoration goal gains greater importance given global climate change predictions for increasingly more variable rainfall and extreme storm events [ 1718 ].
Demographic and evolutionary resilience is limited in a single population compared with the same biomass distributed as a metapopulation [ 19 — 21 ]. This implies that for population restoration to be effective i. For a euryhaline generalist like C.I've tried a number of different things but just can't seem to come up with anything that looks realistic. Any ideas would be welcome. Scenery on my layout means essentially the rock face along the coastline.
I started out by filling the gaps between the two levels of the benchwork with chunks of Styrofoam, roughly shaped to the slope of the coast line.
I managed to cut those ribs with a sharp knife without cutting myself! Next, I covered this with a thick layer of quick drying plaster, to which I added cheap black latex paint to pre-color it.
Immediately after covering the foam with plaster, I gently and I mean really gently pressed crinkeld tin foil into it to give it a rock texture. The result was quite pleasing. I'm not sure exactly what you're looking for. The bulkhead in the second picture is part of the carfloat apron kit by Walthers. When the carfloat is not in port, it looks like this:.
Thanks for the response. I am having difficulty posting a few photos.Mark Besonen
When selecting "Insert Image", an edit screen comes up and askes for source. I have tried entering the path to the photos as well as cutting and pasting to no avail. Welcome to the forums. I always thought that a breakwater was something that was at the opening of a harbor that broke up the waves coming in. They are usually made of dumping large rocks in the water to make a low wall of sorts.
The above is my opinion, from an active and experienced Model Railroader in N scale and HO since The hull was filled with rock and it acted as a breakwater for their facility. The ship was named the 'Buccaneer' and we used to row out to it and climb around on it, some kids used the bow sprit as a diving board.
It was a very unusual site and in late evening the three masts were sihlouetted against the sunset. Just a memory that I thought I would pass on. Just found this article about the Buccaneer. Kibri makes a Dockside Accessories kit that includes a stone breakwater and some dock casing plus misc. I used it to build a small harbour and with some painting it turned out well. Walthers had it but I see they are out now but perhaps you can locate it in a shop.
The item number is There was a very well done breakwater at a train show I attended that was made out of "Birds Eye" gravel. Glued and dullcoated and weathered with painted tide lines, it looked great. You can probably get a 2 Kilo bag at Home Depot.
Also if you go to a landscape supply and ask for their various sample packs they are usually free they go a long way in our hobby. I'll go along with Elmer on this one. To make one I have thought of two ways that might work. First is to get some crushed rock the right size and attach them into a thick plaster or caulk layer on the base. The other is to carve a piece of foam to an approxomate shape and cover with broken up chunks of plaster, stained to the appropriate color.
Similar idea to a breakwater. Having lived in Gloucester, Mass for a number of years, my wife and I would take an evening walk out on the Dog Bar jetty and watch sunsets during the summer. It was made of large cut blocks of granite brought in from New Hampshire. If you want a rocky breakwater, for my causeway I broke rocks into smaller pieces and piled them over a pine base that was covered with air-drying clay.Check out our.
Want More Videos? Login or Register. Video: ScaleTrains. How to transfer a track plan from paper to model railroad benchwork. Battery-powered 24" N-scale model railroad with waterfall. New Products. Model Railroad Planning Current Issue. Model Railroader's Best of Scenery. Model Railroading: The Ultimate Guide Check out all the extras to get the complete Rice Harbor experience. Registered users can click the following links to view the first video and the desktop wallpaper.
Model Railroader subscribers can download the track plan and watch the multi-part video series on building the layout from start to finish. Download the Rice Harbor track plan. Rice Harbor freight car roster. Download the Rice Harbor desktop wallpaper.
Building the HO scale Rice Harbor video series Part 1: Learn about this 5 x 8-foot model train layout built by the Model Railroader staff Part 2: Options for a passenger train station and track laying begins Part 3: Turnout strategies, portable staging, and pattern maker's pins for layout alignment Part 4: Building a lighthouse and weathering model railroad track with an airbrush Part 5: Turntable and bridge for the harbor railroad Part 6: Ground cover, rolling stock, and garden tracks for the layout Part 7: Planning scenes and scenery for Rice Harbor Part 8: Laying track along the waterfront Part 9: Painting the harbor bottom and other waterfront scenery details Part A look at the finished layout and rolling stock.
Join the discussion Read and share your comments on this article. Video: Building a 5 x 8 Harbor Railroad part 1. Railroading along the waterfront. Building a 5 x 8 Harbor Railroad part 2. Building a 5 x 8 Harbor Railroad part 3.If you're a human and see this, please ignore it.
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Dinwoodie, P. Pellegrino, T.Vincent P. Richards, Thomas W. Greig, Patricia A. Fair, Stephen D. Driscoll, A. Bossart, Jose V. Globally distributed, the bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus is found in a range of offshore and coastal habitats. In addition, Bayesian clustering analyses revealed the presence of 2 genetic clusters populations within the km Indian River Lagoon.
Habitat heterogeneity is likely an important force diversifying bottlenose dolphin populations through its influence on social behavior and foraging strategy. We propose that the spatial pattern of genetic variation within the lagoon reflects both its steep longitudinal transition of climate and also its historical discontinuity and recent connection as part of Intracoastal Waterway development.
These findings have important management implications as they emphasize the role of habitat and the consequence of its modification in shaping bottlenose dolphin population structure and highlight the possibility of multiple management units existing in discrete inshore habitats along the entire eastern US shoreline.
Determining population structure in highly mobile organisms is important for facilitating effective conservation management and advances our understanding of the mechanisms that drive the evolution of population genetic structure Hoelzel Here, we focus on a marine species with a global geographic distribution, the common bottlenose dolphin Tursiops truncatus.
Furthermore, genetic differentiation has been detected among multiple coastal populations occupying discrete habitat zones for bottlenose dolphins in general Natoli et al.
Coastal habitat can be further subdivided into inshore and alongshore. Here, we define inshore habitat as bays, lagoons, sounds, tidal marshes, or estuarine waters Leatherwood and Reeves ; Sellas et al. Despite the ubiquity of inshore habitat, little work has been done to investigate genetic population structure among T. A rare study of this kind was that of Sellas et al. The purpose of our study was to test hypotheses regarding patterns of genetic population structure for this species in the context of habitat variation over a fine geographic scale.
To this end, we investigated 2 inshore habitats along the eastern US coastline and compared these 2 regions with proximate alongshore and offshore populations in the Northwest Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, and Caribbean. The management of cetaceans is a difficult problem as populations often show complex patterns of sympatry, parapatry, and mixed assembly Hoelzel Consequently, genetic population data are valuable for reliable stock identification and effective management of bottlenose dolphins Hoelzel ; Waring et al.
The habitats studied have contrasting biogeographic features. The lagoon is a shallow estuary encompassing approximately km 2 that stretches km from the Jupiter Inlet in the south to the Ponce de Leon Inlet in the north Steward et al. Furthermore, in addition to the Indian River, which runs the length of the estuary, the Indian River Lagoon system also includes smaller, less accessible areas, such as the Mosquito Lagoon, Banana River, St.
Lucie River, and several tributaries Figure 1. The lagoon has only 6 inlets from the Atlantic Ocean, which could serve as potential factors shaping population substructure. In contrast, Charleston Harbor and its adjacent estuarine area including the Ashley, Cooper, and Wando Rivers, and Stono River Estuarywhich is about km from the most northern Indian River Lagoon inlet, is considerably smaller, possesses temperate estuaries, and is more accessible to open ocean.
Here, we test the hypothesis that these differences in habitat will be reflected in differences in the structure of local populations and that the inshore populations will be differentiated from each other and from alongshore and offshore populations as seen in earlier, similar studies in the Gulf of Mexico and Australia. Map showing geographic location of mitochondrial control region sequences used in the statistical parsimony analysis and the resulting network.
Sample sizes are shown top left also see Table 1.